Volume 1 Issue 4


Missouri S&T NEWS NOTE
Missouri S&T is reaching out to develop technologies into
the marketplace through CEO:

The Center for Entrepreneurship & Outreach (CEO) at the University of Missouri-Rolla (Missouri S&T) integrates the activities of faculty, students and small business clients by linking with R&D firms to create commercialization opportunities and identify business issues that require public policy attention.
1. Encourage rigorous, relevant research on entrepreneurial high-growth companies
2. Offer a higher probability of success for those embarking on entrepreneurial ventures
3. To enhance technology commercialization efforts to increase the rate of commercial applications from research
4. To stimulate technological innovations and partner with R&D companies to meet federal research and development needs as well as private industry
5. To provide a wide range of management and business development assistance to university faculty and small businesses
6. To assist small businesses in identifying market opportunities and selling within the government contracting system
Why entrepreneurship?
More than 10 million American adults are engaged in starting a business at any given time making the United States one of the most entrepreneurial countries in the world. Americans perceive more opportunities, are more motivated to pursue those opportunities and have a greater capacity to start new businesses than people in other developed countries.

Education that includes a broad-based awareness as well as specific training in a core discipline fits well in today’s high demand world economy. Entrepreneurship is the most basic and essential form of business education, and is a driving force that brings all other disciplines (operations, finance, sales, marketing, human resources and organizational design, leadership, and strategy) successfully together. Combined with a degree in biology, engineering, information systems and other disciplines, this provides a competitive edge for entering the entrepreneurial community.

The Center for Entrepreneurship and Outreach in conjunction with the School of Management and Information System at the University of Missouri – Rolla and University Outreach and Extension invests in programs, partnerships and initiatives that provide both aspiring and established entrepreneurs with knowledge, resources and tools to help start and grow businesses. These entrepreneurial efforts include access to online resources and business counselors, opportunities to network with industrial colleagues, and linking with university faculty, staff, and students to participate in training programs.

For more information, contact:
Amy Light Mills, JD, MBA
Executive Director
[E-Mail] [Bio]
John Parfet, MS, MBA
SBIR/STTR Program Specialist
[E-Mail] [Bio]
Eric Anderson, JD, MBA
BRIDG Project Development Specialist
[E-Mail] [Bio]
Pat Kapila
Administrative Assistant
[E-Mail] [Bio]

Technical Insights on Coatings Science

Two Component Coatings by Volume or Weight?

The formulator takes great care in preparing a formulation, insuring that both components are 1:1 on an equivalent basis by weight. Some applications require more or less of part A or B than a true 1:1 equivalency to meet flexibility, corrosion or other performance criteria. The formulator adjusts the components to make the coating meet the customer’s performance criteria. Often the performance criteria are on the upper edge of the coating’s ability. When this is the case, a small difference in the ratio of part A to part B will result in a coating which will not perform up the specifications.

By Volume:
Part A generally does not have the exact same viscosity as Part B. If two cans of exactly the same volume are filled and then emptied into a third larger can by simply pouring, one may retain a different amount than the other. Therefore the final paint ratio will be off. This error can be high; we have seen it as high as 10% if the viscosities of part A and B are significantly different. If the worker is in a hurry, the error can be even larger. Use of syringe pumps can reduce the error to a minimum but due to possible entrained air, thermal expansion of the equipment and the volume dependency on temperature, the error can still be very significant even if the system is calibrated and temperature corrected.

By Weight:
If we weight Part A into a can and then add, by weight, Part B to the same can, virtually no error will occur. If this balance is tied into a local network, the weights can be logged into a data base and all amounts recorded and stock on hand inventory controlled.

The use of bar codes can also make the job more error free. Inventory and job tracking can be implemented more accurately while using weights to produce better, more uniform coatings. Also, if the bar codes do not match, the operator will be directed to use the proper products. Modern technology can help take the guesswork out of painting.

The use of balances can easily be employed in OEM, on construction sites and even for small contractors. A digital bathroom scale is generally accurate to 0.1 lb. If 5 gallons of paint are mixed, generally it will weigh about 50 lbs. That makes an accuracy of about 0.2% for a $40 balance plus the cost of a calibration weight. It might be better to pay a little more for a more durable balance with a 100 lb maximum weight for 5 gallon batches. This would provide an adequate balance size and added durability for the job.

How is hardness measured?

There are several hardness measures. Often coatings are measured with pencil hardness values. Here the hardness of the pencil is used to gouge into the cured paint film by blunting the end of the pencil and pushing it into the painted surface at a 45° angle. If the pencil damages the surface it is a failure. The pencil whose hardness just does not damage the surface is considered the hardness of the paint. The scale is as follows: softest to hardest (ASTM D3363)


This test has been used for coatings on wood, metal, plastic, concrete and many other surfaces and is well accepted.

Another common hardness measure involves the paint’s ability to dampen cyclic motion. One is the Sward type rocker hardness which measures the dampening of a rocker on the paint surface. The softer the coating the quicker it stops rocking. (ASTM D2134) This test is excellent for very smooth substrates such as flat steel panels. If the substrate or coating has texture, the test will be invalid. Another dampening type hardness measure is the pendulum hardness tester. (ASTM 4366) Here the pendulum rides on the paint sample and the rate of dampening relates to the hardness.

There are many penetration type hardness testers including the Durometer (ASTM 2240) which applies a force to a tip which can vary in shape. The penetration into the coating will then be recorded either digitally or with a dial. The exact tip shape and spring which applies the force must be selected and then the system calibrated prior to use to insure accurate readings. These are well accepted for many OEM applications.

Is there a topic you would like discussed? Contact us by e-mail at coatings@mst.edu.

September 13-17/04 Basic Composition of Coatings This course provides an overview of the components of paint and how they work. Participants are also introduced to methods for testing and manufacture of paint.
April 26-30/04 Introduction to Paint Formulation This course provides techniques used in
formulating paint from raw materials. It involves formulating and making paint in the laboratory, "Hand on!"
Coatings for Engineers available on-line anytime This course is designed to educate engineers in coatings science. Coatings systems will be covered from cleaning and surface prep to pretreatment, priming and topcoats. Specification and testing sections will aid all engineers who are charged with these tasks.
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